Major technological and scientific advances have opened a new era in neurosurgical therapies for people with epilepsy, movement, and psychiatric disorders. These invasive surgical procedures provide the unique ability to record and stimulate neuronal populations in precise brain regions, offering groundbreaking opportunities to explore how our brains perform a wide array of cognitive functions. To optimize these opportunities, Mass General Department of Neurosurgery and MIT Brain and Cognitive Sciences developed the InBRAIN (Intracranial Brain Recording, Analysis, and Intelligent Neuromodulation) Collaboration.